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CARAT

Carat refers to the weight of a diamond not the size, however well proportioned diamond of a certain weight should be a certain size.

One carat equals 0.200grams and contains 100 points.

Two diamonds of equal carat weight can have varying prices when you take into account other diamond factors such as colour, clarity and cut. As the carat size of a diamond increases, the diamond's price increases at an increasing rate as larger diamonds more rare.

Carat
Colour

COLOUR

The less colour in a white diamond, the more true colour it will reflect. The colour of diamonds is placed on a scale of D (colourless) through Z (light colour).

D, E. F diamonds are considered colourless; they are very rare and unique. Each of these colours is unique however the difference is only detectable by a gemmologist using side by side comparisons.

G, H, I, J diamonds are considered near colourless. While traces of colour are present the colour is not noticeable to the naked eye. When set in white gold or platinum the presence of colour is unnoticeable.

K, L, M diamonds have a faint colour. These diamonds can represent great value however the colour is detectable with the naked eye.

Diamond colour go all the way through to Z which present a yellow tint.

See a diamond colour scale of real diamonds.

CLARITY

Clarity of a diamond is determined by the presence of, or lack thereof, of small imperfections within the diamond, known as inclusions. They are known are nature's imprint on the diamond.

FL-IF Even under magnification, a skilled diamond grader, cannot detect any internal inclusions or flaws. These are the rarest diamonds.

VVS1-VVS2 Using 10x magnification a diamond expert finds it very difficult to detect any inclusions or flaws. These are not visible to the naked eye.

VS1-VS2 Under magnification you can clearly see the diamond inclusions but they are very small. Again you cannot see these flaws with the naked eye.

SI1-SI2 Using 10x magnification they inclusions are obvious to a diamond grader. They are not normally visible to an untrained eye.

I1, I2, I3 - Inclusions are obvious and they sometimes affect the brilliance of the diamond

VS1-VS2 Under magnification you can clearly see the diamond inclusions but they are very small. Again you cannot see these flaws with the naked eye.

SI1-SI2 Using 10x magnification they inclusions are obvious to a diamond grader. They are not normally visible to an untrained eye.

I1, I2, I3 - Inclusions are obvious and they sometimes affect the brilliance of the diamond.

Clarity
Metal

METAL

Yellow gold ranges in softness based on its purity, 18kt gold is durable and has an attractive lustre. Gold is commonly mixed with alloy metals such as copper and zinc to increase its strength.

White gold combines pure gold with other white metals, such as zinc, nickel, platinum and silver to create its silver appearance. To make it resilient and resistant to tarnish, white gold jewellery is rhodium plated.

Platinum is a silvery, white metal that's extremely rare and considered more precious and robust than gold. Platinum is among the heavier metals used in jewellery.

CUT

In a well cut diamond, the light strikes each pavilion facet at an angle which allows most of the light to reflect back to the crown (top). As it passes through the crown facets at a low angle, the light refracts upon exit. In this case, refraction is a good thing, as the bent light travels to the observer's eye and is perceived as a lively fire. Rocks Jewellers only sells well cut diamonds.

Cut

HELPFUL TIPS

CERTIFICATION

A diamond certificate is an evaluation of the diamond that is done by an independent company confirming the colour, clarity, and carat. You may see other names for these such as diamond grading reports, diamond dossiers and more.

Rocks Jewellers Certification.

Some of our diamonds are graded by a trained diamond grader and expert within Rocks Jewellers and the others are certified by GIA (Gemmological Institute of America), IGI (International Gemmological Institute), HRD (Hoge Rood Voor Diament). All diamonds that are certified will have their clarity, colour, carat and cut grade. They will also have the diamond measurements and fluorescence listed on the certificate.



MULTI-STONE DIAMOND RINGS

A common question when a customer buys an eternity ring or a trilogy ring is will the diamonds be certified?

In an eternity ring there can be up to 30 stones in particular designs. These stones will also be around 10-15 points. In these ring Rocks Jewellers will grade these stones for you, keeping the costs down while still being reassured of the quality. You will receive a special certificate from us confirming the diamond grades of your diamond eternity ring or diamond tennis bracelet for example.

 

SHAPE

The shape of the diamond is very important when considering your diamond. There are many options and they all have their unique characteristics.

  • Round

    The round brilliant cut diamond is by far the most popular choice of diamond. Over the years this shape has been optimized to make sure it takes the maximum amount of light giving it a fantastic brilliance and sparkle. This shape is perfect for a diamond engagement ring.

  • Princess

    The princess cut is a square shape, it's pointed corners set it apart from the other shapes of diamond available. In a diamond engagement ring it has an unrivalled sparkle and fire.

  • Emerald

    Due to the large table it highlights the clarity of the diamond and in SI clarity inclusions can be visible. The straight rectangular cuts make this modern shaped diamond a fantastic choice for any diamond engagement ring.

  • Marquise

    The marquise cut is a traditional shaped diamond which depending on the cut can get longer or wider as the carat weight increases. The brilliance of this stone is that it looks stunning in a diamond engagement ring or with other shaped stones such as round or princess.

  • Oval

    An oval cut diamond is very similar to a round brilliant cut diamond in its appearance. However it is a fraction longer with curved corners and straighter sides. For someone who has longer, slender fingers this shape of diamond is perfect in an engagement ring.

  • Pear

    The pear shaped diamond is a traditional style and is also known as a tear drop shape. As the diamond increases in carat weight the stone becomes wider as opposed to longer. Fantastic choice for longer, slender fingers.

  • Heart

    A heart shaped diamond is one of the more romantic shaped diamonds.

  • Asscher

    The Asscher cut diamond is a 'stepped' square cut diamond originally developed in 1902. Asscher cut diamonds draw your eye into its art deco appearance.

  • Radiant

    A radiant cut diamond is a similar shape to the emerald cut diamond but sparkles like a round brilliant cut. It has around 75 facets making it ideal for any style of ring or jewellery.

Jewellery

Jewellery or jewelry is a form of personal adornment - such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets.

With some exception such as medical alert bracelets or military dog tags, jewellery normally differs from other items of personal adornment in that it has no other purpose than to look appealing, but humans have been producing and wearing it for a long time - with 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells thought to be the oldest known jewellery.

Jewellery may be made from a wide range of materials, but gemstones, precious metals, beads and shells have been widely used. Depending on the culture and times jewellery may be appreciated as a status symbol, for its material properties, its patterns, or for meaningful symbols. Jewellery has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings.

The word jewellery itself is derived from the word jewel, which was anglicized from the Old French "jouel",[3] and beyond that, to the Latin word "jocale", meaning plaything.

Jewellery has been used for a number of reasons:

Most cultures have at some point had a practice of keeping large amounts of wealth stored in the form of jewellery. Numerous cultures move wedding dowries in the form of jewellery or create jewellery as a means to store or display coins. Alternatively, jewellery has been used as a currency or trade good; an example being the use of slave beads.[citation needed]

Many items of jewellery

, such as brooches and buckles, originated as purely functional items, but evolved into decorative items as their functional requirement diminished.[5]

Jewellery can also be symbolic of group membership, as in the case of the Christian crucifix or Jewish Star of David, or of status, as in the case of chains of office, or the Western practice of married people wearing a wedding ring.

Wearing of amulets and devotional medals to provide protection or ward off evil is common in some cultures; these may take the form of symbols (such as the ankh), stones, plants, animals, body parts (such as the Khamsa), or glyphs (such as stylised versions of the Throne Verse in Islamic art).[6]

In creating jewellery, gemstones, coins,

or other precious items are often used, and they are typically set into precious metals. Alloys of nearly every metal known have been encountered in jewellery. Bronze, for example, was common in Roman times. Modern fine jewellery usually includes gold, white gold, platinum, palladium, titanium, or silver. Most American and European gold jewellery is made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is stated in karats, indicated by a number followed by the letter K. American gold jewellery must be of at least 10K purity (41.7% pure gold), (though in the UK the number is 9K (37.5% pure gold) and is typically found up to 18K (75% pure gold). Higher purity levels are less common with alloys at 22 K (91.6% pure gold), and 24 K (99.9% pure gold) being considered too soft for jewellery use in America and Europe. These high purity alloys, however, are widely used across Asia, the Middle East and Africa.[citation needed] Platinum alloys range from 900 (90% pure) to 950 (95.0% pure). The silver used in jewellery is usually sterling silver, or 92.5% fine silver. In costume jewellery, stainless steel findings are sometimes used.

Diamonds

Main article: Diamond

Diamonds were first mined in India.[8] Pliny may have mentioned them, although there is some debate as to the exact nature of the stone he referred to as Adamas;[9] In 2005, Australia, Botswana, Russia and Canada ranked among the primary sources of gemstone diamond production.[10][11]

The British crown jewels contain the Cullinan Diamond, part of the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found (1905), at 3,106.75 carats(621.35 g).

Now popular in engagement rings, this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary of Burgundy in 1477.[12]

Other gemstones

Main article: Gemstone

Many precious and semiprecious stones are used for jewellery. Among them are:

Amber

Amber, an ancient organic gemstone, is composed of tree resin that has hardened over time. The stone must be at least one million years old to be classified as amber, and some amber can be up to 120 million years old.

Amethyst

Amethyst has historically been the most prized gemstone in the quartz family. It is treasured for its purple hue, which can range in tone from light to dark.

 

Emerald

Emeralds are one of the three main precious gemstones (along with rubies and sapphires) and are known for their fine green to bluish green colour. They have been treasured throughout history, and some historians report that the Egyptians mined emerald as early as 3500 BC.

Jade

Jade is most commonly associated with the colour green but can come in a number of other colours, as well. Jade is closely linked to Asian culture, history, and tradition, and is sometimes referred to as the stone of heaven.

Jasper

Jasper is a gemstone of the chalcedony family that comes in a variety of colours. Often, jasper will feature unique and interesting patterns within the coloured stone. Picture jasper is a type of jasper known for the colours (often beiges and browns) and swirls in the stone's pattern.

Quartz

Quartz refers to a family of crystalline gemstones of various colours and sizes. Among the well-known types of quartz are rose quartz (which has a delicate pink colour), and smoky quartz (which comes in a variety of shades of translucent brown). A number of other gemstones, such asAmethyst and Citrine, are also part of the quartz family. Rutilated quartz is a popular type of quartz containing needle-like inclusions.

Ruby

Rubies are known for their intense red colour and are among the most highly valued precious gemstones. Rubies have been treasured for millennia. In Sanskrit, the word for ruby is ratnaraj, meaning king of precious stones.

Sapphire

The most popular form of sapphire is blue sapphire, which is known for its medium to deep blue colour and strong saturation. Fancy sapphires of various colours are also available. In the United States, blue sapphire tends to be the most popular and most affordable of the three major precious gemstones (emerald, ruby, and sapphire).

Turquoise

Turquoise is found in only a few places on earth, and the world's largest turquoise producing region is the southwest United States. Turquoise is prized for its attractive colour, most often an intense medium blue or a greenish blue, and its ancient heritage. Turquoise is used in a great variety of jewellery styles. It is perhaps most closely associated with southwest and Native American jewellery, but it is also used in many sleek, modern styles. Some turquoise contains a matrix of dark brown markings, which provides an interesting contrast to the gemstone's bright blue colour.

 

Some gemstones (like pearls, coral, and amber) are classified as organic, meaning that they are produced by living organisms. Others are inorganic, meaning that they are generally composed of and arise from minerals.[13]

Some gems, for example, amethyst, have become less valued as methods of extracting and importing them have progressed. Some man-made gems can serve in place of natural gems, such as cubic zirconia, which can be used in place of diamond.[14]

Metal finishes

For platinum, gold, and silver jewellery, there are many techniques to create finishes. The most common are high-polish, satin/matte, brushed, and hammered. High-polished jewellery is by far the most common and gives the metal a highly reflective, shiny look. Satin, or matte finish reduces the shine and reflection of the jewellery and is commonly used to accentuate gemstones such as diamonds. Brushed finishes give the jewellery a textured look and are created by brushing a material (similar to sandpaper) against the metal, leaving "brush strokes." Hammered finishes are typically created by using a soft, rounded hammer and hammering the jewellery to give it a wavy texture.

Impact on society

Jewellery has been used to denote status. In ancient Rome, for instance, only certain ranks could wear rings;[16] Later, sumptuary laws dictated who could wear what type of jewellery, again based on rank. Cultural dictates have also played a significant role. For example, the wearing of earrings by Western men was considered effeminate in the 19th century and early 20th century. More recently, the display of body jewellery, such as piercings, has become a mark of acceptance or seen as a badge of courage within some groups but is completely rejected in others. Likewise, hip hop culture has popularised the slang term bling-bling, which refers to ostentatious display of jewellery by men or women.